Ira Cobe's Vision - Indianapolis Star

The pace of change in automotive technology between the turn of the 20th Century and 1908 was pronounced and developments within motorsports reflected it. There were a handful of auto races in the United States in 1900 - inevitably involving at most a total of three or four cars of one or two cylinders. By 1908 major events were popping up across the country in places like Savannah, Georgia; Briarcliff, New York; Fairmount Park (Philadelphia) and Lowell, Massachusetts to go along with race meets at places like the Indiana State Fairgrounds and Brighton Beach, New York. For these events, a couple of dozen four and six cylinder cars may show up in the hands of drivers with serious credentials in high speed, wheel-to-wheel competition. Much had changed in just a few years. Still, all the classic road races were east coast affairs and yet the two largest automobile production cities were Detroit and Indianapolis. Forces were at work to change that situation.
The challenge of these giant events - that could draw well over 100,000 people - was always making enough money to cover costs. Since the courses were typically longer than 20 miles and utilized public roads it was impossible to charge for tickets except for special grandstands. Still, the races were an economic boon to the communities that hosted them and they were a matter of prestige for those who organized them. Attached is a pretty extensive collection of 29 articles from the Indianapolis Star that start in 1908 and run up to June 18, 1909 - the morning of the first significant road race (the Indiana Trophy) ever staged in Indiana. This was the preliminary race to that weekend's main event - the June 19 Cobe Trophy. These articles document the progression of events that led to the presentation of the first major auto races ever staged in the state of Indiana. For more coverage of events prior to the race weekend see another collection of articles from the Star's rival publication, the Indianapolis News.
The attached article (RoadRaceInterest080908) from the August 9, 1908, Indianapolis Star is an early report of the inspired efforts of the Chicago Auto Club - led by Ira M. Cobe - to establish a Vanderbilt Cup-like road race in northwestern Indiana. There had been talk for months among Hoosier autoists to create a road race as they wanted to showcase the outstanding automobile companies and their products thriving in Indiana.
The article rightly points out how 1908 had become a milestone year for American auto racing - with the proliferation of such large scale events as the stock car races in Savanah, Briarcliff, Lowell and Fairmount Park to go along with the Vanderbilt Cup and the American Grand Prize. With implications for the eventual construction of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway - the land for which would be purchased by its founders only weeks after this article - this report underscores how at the time there was no "blue ribbon" auto race in the state despite its robust automobile industry second only to Detroit.
The article reports that the idea at the time was to provide a venue for long-time American Automobile Association (AAA) executive and former Vanderbilt Cup Race Commissioner Jefferson DeMont Thompson. For reasons I have never been able to uncover Thompson's announced plans never came to fruition. Keep in mind that his intentions were announced during the heat of the Automobile Club of America (ACA) and AAA's battle for supremacy during 1907 and 1908. Thompson may have wanted to shore up the position of his friend William K. Vanderbilt Jr. in the bitter feud that gave birth to the American Grand Prize race that the ACA organized to siphon off all the European entries from the Vanderbilt Cup. They sought to neuter that event from the prominent position it had held as America's greatest race - and it worked. Regardless of what really drove Thompson the point is he made the decision in the context of this animosity.
Thompson's lack of follow-through did not deter Cobe and the Chicago Auto Club - hence the attached articles. Over the next several months their work continued and did result in the 1909 Cobe and Indiana Trophy races. Like Briarcliff, the roads were ridiculously rugged and would be considered off-road racing today. Also like Briarcliff the event would never be repeated - but Cobe would bring his trophy to the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in 1910.
I have also included a brief article (attachment CrownPoint022109) published February 21, 1909, in the Indianapolis Star that affirms that the Chicago Auto Club was moving full speed ahead with plans for the "stock chassis" race in June. An interesting point in the report is that the AAA had not yet granted sanction for the event.
By early March the AAA had yet to formally announce its sanction of the event but it seemed inevitable. A March 7, 1909 Indianapolis Star article (attachment CobeTrophy030709) reports that the Crown Point - Lowell (not to be confused with the Lowell, MA mentioned above) course of northwest Indiana was likely to be the venue and this would prove to be true. Several companies had indicated they planned to submit entries and these included: Buick, Locomobile (although this is confusing because I have seen other reports that Locomobile had withdrawn from racing by this time), Knox, Thomas and Apperson.
On March 15 the Star ran another brief item (attachment CobeTrophy031509) reporting that 20 "committee men" in four cars circulated the proposed course to assess concerns apparently expressed by some that it was unfit for competition. The article reports that the consensus of the men was to rate the course as superior to Briarcliff and comparable or better than much of the Vanderbilt Cup course on Long Island, New York.
On March 27 another article was published in the Star (attachment CobeTrophy032709) reporting that Committee Chairman Burley Ayers of the Chicago Auto Club was organizing a tour of the course for Sunday, April 4. The general sense of the report is that there was a great deal of enthusiasm for the race and a high level of interest in seeing the course. The headquarters for the event was announced as the Commerical Hotel in Crowne Point.
Prior to the scheduled tour, another article was published April 2 (attachment CobeTrophy040209). This article reiterated the view that the Crown Point - Lowell course was superior to Briarcliff and the equal of those used for the Vanderbilt Cup. The circuit was described as 23.6 miles long with two straightaways, one 10 miles long, but much of the rest of the course serpentine "to test the drivers' skills." The point is also made that the roads have ample width for passing. There is a general sense that the roads would also be improved. The remainder of the article addresses a proposed New York to Seattle race that was refused sanction by the AAA Contest Board and its advisory Manufacturers' Contest Association (MCA). The article editorializes in its reporting with a critical tone against the AAA for the decision.
By April 11 the Star was able to report that (attachment CobeTrophy041109) that the AAA had promised sanction for the Cobe races and the rules for the cars had been made public. The races were to be for stock cars and evidence that the cars were indeed stock and not a specially tuned hot rod relied on the number of cars of each model the manufacturer had made - that number was 10. Each manufacturer had to provide an affidavit and a $5,000 bond to back up their claim that the cars were stock. There were two classes of cars announced with the primary difference between the two being engine displacement capacity. The larger engine cars 525 cubic inches. They also needed to adhere to a minimum weight of 2,250 pounds. There was no weight requirement for the smaller cars but their engine displacement could not exceed 300 inches.
An April 17 article, again in the Star (attachment CobeTrophy041709), reiterates the rules described above. Note that evidence a 1910 entered car model was stock was not that the company had produced 10 cars but had the parts in inventory to produce 10 cars. Also, some "hot rod" modifications were allowed with respect to gearing, adjustments to the steering mechanism and special wheels. The technical committee was David Beecroft, F.E. Edwards and Bernie Nadall. As to the event operations, the organizing committee for the race was able to secure the services of both the Indiana and, in an unprecedented move, the Illinois state militia to secure the course from interloping spectators. An unrelated bit of information was tagged to the end of this article when it was reported that former United States Vice President Charles Warren Fairbanks had recently purchased a new Studebaker automobile. Attachment CobeTrophy041809 contains images of the course and some of the organizers. Among the organizers are the great Ira Cobe (president of the Chicago Auto Club), N.H. Van Sicklen and T.N. Koehler (first vice president of the Chicago Auto Club).
On April 26 the Star published an article (attachment CobeTrophy042609) reporting that a potential conflict with the Cobe Trophy event was brewing - the anticipation of another AAA stock car chassis event at Lowell, Massachusetts in June. The organizers, however, dismissed this development as an issue. Perhaps to underscore their confidence most of the rest of the article stressed the manufacturers that had already entered cars and the ones that were expected to follow suit. In addition to the makers listed above, Stevens-Duryea, Ford, Moon, Oakland, Jackson, Matheson, Fiat, EMF, Corbin, Lozier, De Dion and Chalmers-Detroit were all possibilities. The article reports that Frank H. Trego was the general manager of the event and was working with the companies to secure their participation.
The May 1 Indianapolis Star published an interesting article (attachment Cobe050109) because it reported that the cost of staging the Cobe Trophy races was an anticipated $60,000. The bulk of the expense would be in conditioning the course such as banking corners but also smoothing the roads. Beyond the racing surface, some infrastructure was required in particular the grandstand seating. The militia to police the course would also require financial support. The organizers hoped to recover much of this expense through grandstand seat sales and forecast $40,000 of revenue from that source. This article also mentions the nickname the media gave the event - "The Western Vanderbilt."
A Star article published May 2 is a great reference as it neatly summarizes some of the basic facts about the upcoming race. In a single chart the mileage distance, number of laps, dates and start times for both races is provided. The article refers to the June 18 preliminary small car race as the "Indiana Trophy," distinguishing it from the main event June 19 Cobe Trophy. Trego's executive team is noted and these men were: Joseph F. Gunther, A.J. Banta and Motor Age reporter C.G. Sinsabaugh. The challenge of securing forces from two state militias is underscored. Long distance phone calls, railroad trips, and various meetings are mentioned. Other car entries were promised by factories - Pennsylvania and FAL in particular. A French Berliet was a possible entry - but not by the factory as they had a policy against the sport. The potential entrant was W.W. Shaw, an automobile dealer. His plan was to purchase a new car - identical to one that the article said had won the Targa Bologna and enter it himself. I am not clear what race this references as Vincenzo Trucco won the Targa Florio the previous year.
A pair of brief articles were published May 5, 1909 in the Indianapolis Star and can be found in attachment Cobe050909i. One article discusses the entry of a pair of Marmon stock cars in the Cobe Trophy, the Model "32." The drivers were Harry Stillman and Ray Harroun. Interestingly, the article suggests that Marmon was only just entering the sport of auto racing. Chief Engineer Howard Marmon traveled with the team and the company Nordyke & Marmon apparently was communicating with their customers and helping to coordinate lodging. The other article highlights that some big stars of the day were driving, including Louis Chevrolet, Bob Burman and Lewis Strang. Curiously, the article reports that Chevrolet was entered in the small car Indiana Trophy race, not the Cobe Trophy. In the end, Chevrolet would win the Cobe Trophy as well as compete for the Indiana Trophy. Ford and Corbin are reported to have confirmed their entries for the race.
This article is a bit of a mash-up as it seamlessly integrates additional information about Rambler, Studebaker and EMF while none of it has any bearing on the Cobe Trophy or Indiana Trophy. The information is interesting in that Rambler was enjoying tremendous sales and that Thomas B. Jeffery's company is named as the manufacturer of the product. His son, Charles T. Jeffery is quoted in the article. The sometimes stressful relationship of Studebaker and EMF, as well as the former's equity investment in the latter, is noted.
An article published in the Star on May 11 (attachment Cobe051109) reveals that Trego's office was in the "east" and that he had just arrived in Chicago to oversee first-hand preparations for the big races. A number of $30,000 is referenced as the cost of labor and equipment such as steam shovels. Entries of Fiat, Renault, and Isotta but were private, not factory entries. Eddie Hearne is mentioned as the owner of a Fiat likely to be entered.
On May 23 the Star published an article (attachment Cobe052309) that reported on the rules released by the technical committee of Beecroft, Edwards, and Nadall. Note that Edwards is referred to as a professor. Among these were the race signals through flag colors. Red meant clear course, white meant to come to pit for consultation, green meant one more lap, yellow meant stop immediately and checkered meant the race is over. As for the cars, the rules described above still applied with additional details to allow for hand pumps for engine oil distribution and the addition of shock absorbers. Every car had to carry two people averaging 132 pounds each. These were the only two people allowed to work on the car. This work was to be done in the pits or in a control point in Lowell. The other teammates could hand the two men then equipment and parts required but never touch the car themselves.
Attachment Cobe052609 contains a brief item published in the Indianapolis Star on May 26 worth reviewing as it contains a nice description of the course which not only included the towns of Crowne Point and Lowell but Cedar Lake, Indiana as well. The first three miles were referred to as the "rollercoaster" due to it undulations and twists and turns. There was a six-mile straightaway between Lowell and Cedar Lake. The 10-mile straightaway described above became known as the "east leg." There was a a runoff road pointing toward a small community known as Orchard Grove which was allowed for due to a sharp turn just prior to entering the 10-mile stretch. There is not much information about the quality of the running surface but there is a mention that men were working with steam shovels and mule teams to prepare it.
Another brief digest of motor racing oriented news was published by the Star on May 28 (attachment Cobe052809). The best part was the commentary on how the Crowne Point community was already enjoying a bump in their economy due to all the attention around the upcoming races. Mixed into the article was a comment about how Indianapolis police had visited the Indianapolis Motor Speedway to help them gather information they needed to develop a plan for managing traffic into the facility for the upcoming national balloon races.
Attachment Cobe053009i from the May 30 Indianapolis Star announces the entry of two FAL cars by company Sales Manager H.R. Averill. E.M. Harrison and A.H. Pearce were named as drivers. Both drivers, the report asserts, were of "national and international fame." Also published in the Star on May 30 (attachment Cobe053009ii) comes a truly interesting article about the Illinois state militia's "battle plan" for policing the course. The senior officer was Colonel J.B. Sanborn and his plan called for 41 military points around the 23.6-mile course. All of these points were organized within one of three zones. The colonel, an experienced military man battle-tested in the Spanish-American War, prepared his troops. Loaded with provisions, they even dug their own well. At the end of the article on military preparations, it reports that Marion had entered a car in the Indiana Trophy race. Both designer Harry Stutz his cousin Charles Stutz were announced as drivers.
On June 4 the Indianapolis Star reported that Corbin had entered a 30 HP car in the Indiana Trophy, but this was only one of a handful of confirmed entries. The slow pace of submissions must have been a little disconcerting to Chicago Auto Club organizers as confirmations trickled in. They maintained an upbeat public stance, however, saying that manufacturers typically filed just before the deadline. No driver was named to the car but the hot rumor was that Jack Swan (Alvin Maisonville actually drove) who enjoyed success in the machine at the Wilkes Barre hill climb would be at the wheel. The article updates the travel plans of the Illinois militia as commanding officer Colonel J.B. Sanborn had made arrangements for his troops to arrive at "ground zero" the day before the race. That sounded a little surprising to me as they had a wide range of ground to cover and I expected they would want to become familiar with the territory prior to the event.
Herb Lytle made news by selecting Joseph J. Bates as his riding mechanic for his Apperson entry and an article concerning that development appeared in the Indianapolis Star on June 6 (attachment CobeLytle060609). The 30-year-old Bates came to Apperson with an impressive resume that included his service as a mechanic for Pope Motor Car Company for six years. On June 8 the Star ran a brief item (attachment Cobe06081909) noting that the top executive for the race Frank Trego had visited the course and noted a discrepancy between the circuit's announced distance and its actual measurement. He is reported as saying the difference was 0.9 miles. The timeline on this is a mystery to me as this article says the course had been announced as 24.5 miles but was actually 23.6 miles. However, newspaper reports documented here clearly show the track had been referred to as 23.6 miles. (Honestly, the date of the article could be in error and if so, that's on me. I include it here with that caveat for a background.)
Race officials and many drivers were announced in a June 11, 1909 Indianapolis Star article (Attachment Cobe061109). At the top of the article is a box listing the officials: Referee - Asa Paine; Starter - Fred J. Wagner; Clerk of the Course - Charles P. Root; Chief Timer - Harry Knights; Judges - John Farson, John C. Eastman, Fred D. Countiss, H.O. Smith, Judge W.C. Mahon and Judge V.S. Reiter; Chief Flagman - Fred B. Wood; Chief of Electric Timing - Bick Edwards and Commissary General - Oliver Temme.
Among the drivers nominated was Alvin Maisonville for the Corbin with J.R. Aude as riding mechanic. The article insinuates that this would be Maisonville's first long distance road race. Apperson named driver Joe Seymour to drive a team car to the previously announced one for Herb Lytle. Stoddard-Dayton named Fred Wiseman and Carl Wright to their entries while a driver named Dunnell was promised for a Ford entry that never materialized. Other drivers included top stars George Robertson, Lewis Strang and Jim Florida who were already at work practicing. Meanwhile, the hotels in the area were filling up as well as farmhouses willing to take in renters for a brief stay.
The build-up to the Cobe Trophy weekend was intense and probably because it was the first major auto race held in Indiana it captured the enthusiasm of the entire midwest. On June 12 the Indianapolis Star ran an article (attachment Cobe061209) updating developments including drivers that had begun practicing for the race even before the course was officially open. Among them were Robertson, Maisonville, Adolph Monson and Art Greiner. Other drivers mentioned are Knox pilots William "Billy" Bourque and Al Denison as well as Al Poole and C.A. Engelback.
An interesting commentary on the state of public roads is presented as the article describes the 44-mile stretch race fans would be forced to travel when arriving by car or horse-drawn conveyance. The route involved, according to the article, involved roughly 34 miles of macadam (crushed stone) roads, the remainder of the distance rough terrain that could be a quagmire with rain. This article also reports that local farmers were readying their properties to service out-of-town visitors with food and shelter.
Published in the Star on June 13 the article in attachment Cobe061309 proclaims the first official day of practice for the Cobe Trophy and the Indiana Trophy. A very useful table of facts concerning the events kicks off the report with a quick summary of such facts as the number of cars in each race, their respective dates and start times, the projected finish times and the number of entries in each race. The information also spells out the track length and the number of laps for each race.
One of the things the reporters and motoring public were always interested in was top speed and the average speed for the completion of races. In these early racing instances, the media compared speeds at different tracks and heralded the fastest laps or race averages attained.  It is as if they are establishing records across various courses despite their obvious differences. The Crowne Point - Lowell course is effectively declared the equal of all others - even the vaunted French Grand Prix course of Dieppe.
The article reports that the total cost of the 30 cars in the two races - 12 for the Cobe Trophy and 18 for the Indiana Trophy - was $100,000. In this context, the article underscores that the cars were stock and not "freak" racers and therefore a practical test. The article quotes expert forecasts of a crowd of 300,000 people attending the races with each on average spending $10 within the local community. That made for an economic injection into the community of about $3M for vendors of all kinds including residents providing makeshift lodging and food.
Another article published in the June 13 Indianapolis Star attempts to localize the story for readers by focusing on the chances of Indiana-built cars in the race. These are specifically the Marions of Harry Stutz and Adolph Monsen as well as the Kokomo-built Appersons of Herb Lytle and Joe Seymour. The article presents Stutz and Monsen as amateurs which is not surprising especially with respect to Stutz who as the executive engineer for Marion and future founder of Stutz his reputation in history is that of a business man, not a race car driver.
The rough terrain of the course is underscored by a report that Eddie Hearne's Fiat suffered a cracked cylinder and his team was in a desperate search for a replacement. Cars in those days did not have engine blocks but instead separate casings for cylinders. Somewhat amusing is the story that Fiat parts were difficult to come by and the only known source was the private car owned by a Chicago woman who was not keen on lending pieces of her personal car for the abuse of Hearne trying to win a rugged road race at breakneck speed. Another example of the rough course is a report that George Robertson took his Locomobile out with the company's Chicago Branch Manager A.J. Banta and a race official in search of bumps and holes. Banta was at the wheel and deliberately hitting holes at 40 MPH to illustrate to the official just how treacherous they were. Trains steamed into Crown Point full of spectators, people associated with the event and car parts for repair work.
According to an article in the June 16 Indianapolis Star (Cobe061609) official practice was delayed until June 15. Lewis Strang grabbed the headline in his Buick with a record lap in 21 minutes - easily faster than the still awesome "mile a minute" target as the course was a reported 23.6 miles. Newspaper man Christian D. Hagerty accompanied the champion driver and pronounced the jarring ride a harrowing experience. Strang, who reportedly hit over 80 MPH in some stretches said his springs were pressed flat at some points on the course. As the first day of official practice the course was cleared of all traffic but still Knox driver Al Denison hit a dog whose body broke his racer's gas line. The Apperson drivers were noted for strong practice times as well, Lytle covering the course in 25 minutes on his first time out.
Course preparations were still underway with concrete applied to holes and plans for applications of oil to tamp down dust. Infrastructure included telegraph wires connecting the judge's stand in Crown Point to 17 telegraphers stationed around the course to feed information to officials. Two big scoreboards were erected within sight of the grandstand for race updates. Two temporary tent hospitals were prepared in Crown Point and Lowell. Colonel Sanborn of the Illinois militia regiment toured the course for the final time prior to deploying his 900 men to police the course.
Marion teammates Harry Stutz and Adolph Monson grabbed the Star's June 17 headline (attachment Cobe061709i) when they diced during practice the previous day. Widely regarded as the most treacherous spot of the course an "S" curve proved Stutz' undoing when he misjudged his approach to the second curve, turned too abruptly and tossed his riding mechanic Ray Tinkler from the car. Tinkler escaped uninjured as he fell in what was described as "soft sod" but the car was clearly worse for the wear with a bent axle. Stoddard-Dayton pilot C.A. Englebeck recorded fast lap of the day at 23.5 minutes. Officials set up a mile speed trap using electric timers. Strang proved fastest at just over 70 MPH with Florida in the Locomobile next at a tick over 67 MPH. Hearne had his Fiat on the course but no mention is made of the steps he took to repair the previously mentioned cracked cylinders.
The Indianapolis Star carried a substantial article on the morning of the preliminary race, the Indiana Trophy. Attachment Cobe061809 summarizes the final practice of the previous day. A box at the beginning of the article provides some highlights including the withdrawal of a Ford entry and a list of 17 others expected to start. I enjoy articles like this one that captures the race day atmosphere. An excerpt provides great color:
"This little Hoosier City is one big garage today. The streets are lined with automobiles, parties already arrived to watch the Western stock chassis races tomorrow and Saturday. Mechanical parts of the race machines are strewn on hotel floors and sidewalks. Long before the sun was up this morning the town was wide awake with the noise of smoke wagons, blended with the cries of the sandwich vendors and the newsies. In fact all night long those who sought slumber were disturbed by the ever-increasing arrivals with machines loaded with tourists."
Chalmers drivers Billy Knipper and Joe Matson were among the fastest of the final practice with laps in the 26 to 27-minute range. Meanwhile, spectators were staking their claims of vantage points and camping roadside to protect them. Course workers mounted on motorcycles scurried about the grounds under the direction of officials. Farm vehicles of "ancient and modern type" transported "country folk" to spots along the road. Trains ran hourly excursions from Chicago and Hammond to Lowell and Crown Point. Hotels and homes were packed with paying guests while many others camped in tents. Despite earlier reports that the course was the rival of any other in the country this article calls it "the most dangerous on Earth." Fred Wagner held a drivers meeting to review signaling flags and race rules. Chief Flagman Frank Wood huddled all the course workers to review their responsibilities. Perspectives from entrants such as Sales Manager Harry Stout of Apperson are presented as well.
Another article published in the Star on the same day (attachment Cobe061809ii) quotes Harry Stutz (perhaps still wincing after his practice incident) saying that necks and machines would be broken, not records, due to the rough nature of the course. Lewis Strang is said to have hit a bump on the course that propelled his car some 50 feet without the wheels touching the ground. This, the report says, was a common experience for all the drivers. While this article repeats a lot of previously reported information it does provide new details. One example is the proliferation of viewing stands erected by farmers where the roads slice through or abut their property. While the event would prove to be a financial bath for the organizers there can be little doubt that it was an economic boon to the community in general. Residents not only built stands along the course but also sold food and lodging - all of it beyond any government oversight of health inspections and building codes.
A brief description of how the Chicago Auto Club "discovered" the course and negotiated with Lake Country supervisors for its use is provided. An agreement for the club to prepare the roads and repair them as well as any damage to abutting property earned them the right to use the roads and even have them closed to the public for practice and the races. In days leading up to the race the roads were closed from 2 to 4 pm for practice.
Another bit of color describing the atmosphere is supplied by this lift from the article, "Every orchard, meadow and corn field that bounds the entire circuit has long been rented at a premium. Grand stands that look more like chicken roosts are to be seen every other hundred feet on either side of the course. The farmers are reaping a harvest from the influx of visitors."
A full-page view of the page that contained the article described above is in attachment CobeMap061809. I did this because it contains images of officials Paine, Trego and Root as well as an outline of the course.

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